Rappahannock Tribe Consultation Policy

Rappahannock Tribe Consultation Policy

Nov. 19, 2021

  1. Note: This is an evolving document. If you are using it for consultation, please check with the Tribe directly to ensure you are using the most updated version. We request that all communications inquiring about the Tribe’s desire to consult, or related to an ongoing consultation process, be provided in hard copy to Rappahannock Tribe, 5036 Indian Neck Road, Indian Neck, Va., 23148, AND via electronic mail to Rappahannock Chief Anne Richardson arichardson@rappahannocktribe.org AND the Tribe’s attorney, Marion Werkheiser of Cultural Heritage Partners  marion@culturalheritagepartners.com


The Rappahannock Tribe is a sovereign indigenous nation with political, geographic, and cultural roots in the Chesapeake region that date back thousands of years. When the English arrived on this continent, the Rappahannock were self-governing, and the formation of the United States did not abolish the Rappahannock’s inherent right to exercise sovereignty over its people, land, and resources.[1] Through treaties and agreements, however, the Tribe ceded certain rights to the English, which later passed on to the United States.[2] In return, the United States has a trust responsibility to the Rappahannock that includes an obligation to consult with the Tribe on actions that may affect the Tribe’s aboriginal lands, resources, and exercise of self-government. This responsibility is recognized under both domestic and international law.[3]

The U.S. Supreme Court has said that the trust responsibility charges the United States with “moral obligations of the highest responsibility and trust” and, therefore, its conduct in dealing with tribal nations should “be judged by the most exacting fiduciary standards.”[4] The trust responsibility obligates the United States to avoid actions that negatively affect tribal resources, even when the federal action takes place off-reservation.[5] Out of this trust responsibility arises the duty to consult with tribes to determine whether and how federal actions will affect them.[6] The federal government has recognized its consultation responsibility through the enactment of various statutes, regulations, policies, and executive orders.

As a successor to the English Crown, the Commonwealth of Virginia also has recognized a trust relationship with the Rappahannock Tribe.[7] Consequently, state agencies have a similar responsibility to consult with the Tribe to ensure maximum protection of the Tribe’s resources and sovereignty. Consultation will ensure that the Commonwealth and the Tribe maintain a harmonious relationship and effectively manage limited resources.

Consultation with federally-recognized tribes regarding their cultural patrimony and impacts of projects on contemporary tribal populations is also legally required for federal agencies under a variety of legislation, including the National Historic Preservation Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act, and a series of other laws and regulations. Depending on the specific legislation, federal agencies are required to avoid, minimize, and/or mitigate adverse effects. The extent and manner of this consultation has been enumerated in a series of Executive Orders and court cases.

This policy proactively addresses the procedures and approaches that the Rappahannock Tribe would like federal and state agencies to follow when engaging with the Tribe and describes the context needed for consulting parties to adequately consider the Tribe’s perspective and relationship towards any proposed project. Elements of this policy are based on a review of the National Council of American Indians’ 2012 Updated Tribal Consultation Policy Report and existing consultation policies of federal agencies, particularly the Department of Interior, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Background Education for Agencies and Project Proponents

The Tribe asks that project proponents, overseeing agencies, and state historic preservation offices review the following background material as an early step in engaging with the tribe on their project, in order to fully understand the Rappahannock Tribe’s potential interests.

The Rappahannock Tribe has 500 enrolled tribal citizens and is governed by a Tribal Council of ten members. The Tribe was incorporated in 1921, was recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1983, and was recognized by the United States in 2018 via the Thomasina E. Jordan Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act. . The service area of the Tribe, defined in the Thomasina E. Jordan Act as the places eligible for the delivery of federal services to tribal members, is comprised of King and Queen County, Caroline County, Essex County, and King William County, Virginia. Counties where the Tribe is  eligible to have land in fee held in trust by the federal government (and therefore establish a reservation) include King and Queen County, Stafford County, Spotsylvania County, Richmond County, Essex County, and Caroline County if the land was owned on or before January 1, 2007; and any land owned by the Tribe in King and Queen County, Richmond County, Lancaster County, King George County, Essex County, Caroline County, New Kent County, King William County, and James City County. King and Queen County awarded the Rappahannock Tribe tax-exempt status on land associated with our Tribal Center in 1997.

Ancestral lands and areas of concern to the Tribe include a much broader area than the recognized federal service area or areas where the Tribe is eligible to have lands in trust. The Tribe has a complex pre- and post-Contact history, and it has an interest in a variety of regions within and beyond Virginia based on this history and the location of its contemporary tribal citizenship. Compared to the James River watershed, much less is known regarding the Rappahannock River valley’s occupation during the Paleo-Indian, Archaic, and Early Woodland periods. By the end of the Middle Woodland period, populations of native people in the Rappahannock River valley appear to have grown more extensive and coalesced into persistent occupations. When John Smith explored the Rappahannock River in 1608, he found at least 43 Indigenous communities along the watershed, most located along the river’s northern shore[8]. Many Rappahannock towns are listed on the John Smith map. In addition, it is clear that members of the Rappahannock also traveled with some frequency to towns on the James River, such as Quiyocohannock upstream from Jamestown, where the Rappahannock werowance met with Christopher Newport.[9]

Limited archaeological evidence suggests that the ancestors of the current tribe were in the Rappahannock River valley by 10-12,000 years ago. Temperatures were cooler, sea level lower, and the rich resources so characteristic of the river valley today were still off in the future. The distribution of diagnostic projectile points in the river valley from this early period suggests that the river valley was populated by people arriving from the west. These early groups made a living through plant gathering and foraging and hunting. By 1200 BCE, population was much higher and, while gathering, foraging, and hunting remained important, domesticated crops were also being planted and harvested (although not corn, an import from Mexico ca. 900 CE). Sometime ca. 200 CE, another migration appears to have happened in the Chesapeake region, with migrants arriving from the east, presumably from what is now the Northeast US. These migrants are believed to be the ancestors of the region’s Algonquian groups, although these migrants no doubt mixed with people already in the river valley. By now, the river valley was looking not unlike it does today, with rich, extensive marshes that would have been attractive to people. Based on an increase in the number of sites, population appears to be increasing and especially so after the presumed arrival of corn in the region. By 1200 CE, new decision-making structures were evolving – evident in the archaeological patterning of houses, ceramics, lithics, ceremonial places, and town settlements.

While the seventeenth century was a period of great removal and disruption for Virginia’s native people, the Rappahannock River valley became a location where, for a time, Rappahannock tribes and tribes from the Potomac River inhabited and lived separately from colonizers as a means of maintaining our own lifeways. By the middle of the seventeenth century, English colonists were moving into the river valley, displacing existing groups. During the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, native cultural groups combined and reformed several times. Tribal oral history also references that some segments of the Rappahannock Tribe moved northwards into southern Maryland, where they encountered the Piscataway. Between the 1650s to the 1690s, the Rappahannocks were moved once by the British government and moved themselves several times. These relocations took the Tribe from a patented reserve on the border of King and Queen and Essex counties, to a ridgeline reservation in the area of present-day Indian Neck, to Portabago in northern Essex County, and back to Indian Neck.[10]  The contemporary citizens of the Rappahannock Tribe are the descendants of multiple Contact-era tribes including the Rappahannock, Morattico (Moraughtacund), Portobacco, and perhaps the Doeg. Most live in Essex, Caroline, and King and Queen Counties.

Themes important to the Rappahannock include our traditional watershed along the Rappahannock River, and also periodic travels to the James River watershed. The Rappahannock River is of paramount importance to the Tribe’s history, traditional cultural practices, and connection to the land of our ancestors. The name Rappahannock means “the people who live where the water rises and falls.” Early English accounts refer to the native people along the Rappahannock River fishing, collecting oysters, making use of animals and plants in the marshes, using the river as a connector to other places, harvesting during warm months and making greater use of inland camps during the winter. The Rappahannock River was not only an important region of subsistence, it was also an area where tribal members gathered medicinal plants and held feasts and celebrations. The River served as the focal point of the tribal community, with settlements and ceremonial places, including Native cemeteries, situated in view of towns and therefore part of a town’s everyday life. This connection continues to the present day. The Tribe stewards the River and strengthens its connection to the River through programs such as Return to the River, which brings tribal youth to historic sites along the river and teaches Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK).

There has also been limited documentation, in need of further investigation, regarding Rappahannock travels to the Mattaponi and James Rivers. As a result, the tribe is particularly concerned with any projects or developments which threaten the health of waterways and streams within the watersheds of the Rappahannock, Mattaponi, and James Rivers but also potentially in other areas of the mid-Atlantic. The Tribe also understands our pre- and post-Contact tribal history to be understudied, and areas of consultation interest may shift or expand in response to new information.

Of particular concern for the Tribe are sites associated with human remains, village/town habitation, and sacred or ritual sites. The Tribe believes that unearthing our ancestors from the ground represents a violation of the wishes of our ancestors, their human dignity, and the connection between the Rappahannock and our traditional lands. Archaeological investigation of sacred or ritual sites, impacts to critical viewsheds, or ongoing construction and development impacts around these sites, represents a similar violation to Rappahannock cultural patrimony and spiritual practice.

Another issue vital to the Tribe’s interests is the collection and treatment of herbal treatments and the practice of traditional herbalism. The Tribe’s practices regarding plant-based medicine was observed by Frank Speck in the 1920s-1940s during his extensive work with the tribal community[11]. Stewardship of native local flora and the transmission of this knowledge to younger generations is another strong tribal priority.

Issues that impact the Tribe today include many challenges common to rural areas. Lack of communications infrastructure including broadband wireless, transportation funding for nearby roads, and the need for adequate investment in schools are all critical issues of importance to the tribe. The Tribe is also concerned about industrial and agricultural pollution in the area of modern tribal members. Finally, many of the roads in Indian Neck are historic and are routes along which tribal members were forced to move in response to English encroachments, so road improvements should consider these tribal removals when analyzing and assessing historic properties and significance.

Depending on the significance, time period, and particulars of a given consultation project, the Rappahannock’s geographic area of interest is variable and must take into account a project’s potential to impact the three watersheds of interest to the Tribe, historical and prehistoric migrations, trade routes, contemporary tribal concerns, and spiritual beliefs. In many cases, one or several meetings are necessary to determine the project’s impacts on the Tribe.

The Tribe asks that, prior to a face-to-face meeting with our representatives, representatives of federal agencies or project proponents familiarize themselves with the tribe through review of the following documents, which provide important historical and modern context into the Tribe and provide a common frame of reference for future discussions:

  • Rappahannock Map of Consultation Interests (attached)
  • Defining the Rappahannock Indigenous Landscape (Strickland et al 2016)
  • Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017, Title IV, Sections 401-407

The Tribe has additional materials they are willing to share with qualified researchers, including the dissertation that Ed Ragan wrote on tribal history, and the text of his forthcoming book, Where the Water Ebbs and Flows: Place and Self among the Rappahannock People. The Tribe also has contacts with several other researchers and has access to other sources, and is happy to provide additional recommended sources with which to refer as is appropriate for specific projects.


Consultation requires more than the transmission of letters and notifications to tribes regarding ongoing projects. The Rappahannock Tribe prefers that communications be proactive, ongoing, and relationship-based. The Tribe has the following requests for communicating important information regarding projects that impact Tribal interests, including but not limited to federal or state consultation regarding project impacts during environmental review, outreach involving legislation with impacts to Virginia native communities, and other issues that require consultation.

  1. The goal of consultation should not be merely to inform the Tribe about a project; rather, the goal should be to reach a consensus. Meaningful consultation is a back-and-forth discussion between parties that culminates in a mutual agreement. Through this process, federal and state agencies have the opportunity to learn about impacts to tribal resources and develop plans in a way that protects those resources.
  2. Consultation should be initiated as early as possible in the planning or permitting phases of a project and before any key decisions have been made. For example, as soon a federal agency is discussing a proposed project with state agencies and private parties, the federal agency should also be discussing the project with the Tribe. When concerns are identified and resolved early, all parties benefit, as unexpected delays are avoided.
  3. We request that all communications inquiring about the Tribe’s desire to consult, or related to an ongoing consultation process, be provided in hard copy to Rappahannock Tribe, 5036 Indian Neck Road, Indian Neck, Va., 23148, AND via electronic mail to Rappahannock Chief Anne Richardson arichardson@rappahannocktribe.org AND the Tribe’s attorney, Marion Werkheiser of Cultural Heritage Partners  marion@culturalheritagepartners.com
  4. Efforts should be made to ensure documents are comprehensible, well-organized, and labelled. When documents are sent through electronic means, they should be searchable PDFs. Large complex folder structures should be sent with a ReadMe file or summary. All relevant documents should be provided to ensure that the Tribe is able to do a comprehensive review.
  5. The Tribe prefers to develop an ongoing relationship with individuals within federal agencies and companies that commonly initiate projects that are subject to consultation. This involves proactive outreach at times when there is no imminent consultation project, providing informal advance notice when major projects are anticipated, inclusion at appropriate governmental meetings that impact the Tribe, and invitations to view artifacts or information of significance to the Tribe. The Tribe prefers to engage with the same staff members on many projects so that trust and understanding can be developed and asks federal agencies to manage their tribal outreach in a way that does not burden the tribal government with the responsibility of re-educating government officials anew on each project.
  6. To assist the Tribe in consulting on projects of potential interest to them, the Tribe requests that federal agencies and project proponents offer face-to-face meetings to discuss the project if the Tribe demonstrates an interest in consultation. Meetings should be held at the Rappahannock Tribal Center at 5036 Indian Neck Rd, St Stephens Church, VA 23148, unless the Tribe agrees to other arrangements.
  7. For agencies that have a considerable number of projects that may affect the Rappahannock Tribe, the Rappahannock requests a brief summary report of progress on these projects every six months. These summaries should be written in clear English in language that does not presuppose expertise in environmental law or construction techniques. It should also include anticipated next steps in these projects and any updated information on the project timing.
  8. The Rappahannock has an interest in the cultural resources of its modern and ancestral territory and a stake in experiencing these discoveries directly. When a project on which the Rappahannock is consulting has a Phase III data recovery or particularly substantial testing planned on a native site, the Rappahannock ask to be alerted to this at least 1 week before the planned fieldwork. The Tribe also ask to be invited to visit the data recovery if at all practical. If laboratory analysis results in significant discoveries related to prehistory or historic native occupations, the Tribe asks that they have the discovery related to them in an email or phone call, and that they be invited to visit to learn more and see the materials.

Geographic Trends for Rappahannock Consultation

Tribes have broad discretion regarding identification of projects of interest to them or that have impacts on modern tribal communities or historic tribal resources. As discussed in the background section of this policy, the Rappahannock Tribe has a variety of geographic areas of interest and our consultation practices in these areas may change over time.

  1. The Tribe requests an offer of consultation for any federal undertaking located in Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, DC, or Maryland, but will not necessarily decide to consult on all projects in this area.
    1. For FCC cell tower review projects, the area of potential consultation interest is restricted to the areas on the FCC consultation map, which for Virginia includes the counties of Shenandoah, Page, Greene, Albemarle, Buckingham, Appomattox, Charlotte, Halifax, and all counties and independent cities to the east and included within these counties. In Maryland the FCC consultation area is restricted to the counties of Frederick, Baltimore, the independent city of Baltimore, Howard, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Prince George’s, Calvert, Charles, St. Mary’s, Kent, Queen Anne’s, Caroline, Talbot, Dorchester, Wicomico, Worcester, and Somerset. The District of Columbia is also within the Rappahannock’s area of interest for FCC projects.
  2. The Tribe may request consultation for projects outside of these areas, given specific project parameters or concerns
  3. The Tribe will generally request consultation status for all projects that:
    1. Are located in a specific geographic area of greatest interest to the tribe, representing the tribe’s contact period location and historic movements and settlements (including but potentially not limited to New Kent County, Stafford County, Spotsylvania County, King and Queen County, King William County, King George County, Caroline County, Essex County, Richmond County, Prince George County, Westmoreland County, Lancaster County, Middlesex County, James City County, and adjacent cities).
    2. Are present in a wider geographic area and have a heightened likelihood for either human remains, Rappahannock-associated village sites, or currently lack a federally-recognized tribe capable of safeguarding native resources
    3. Relate to particular themes of concern to tribes, such as:
      1. Environmental quality of Rappahannock watershed
      2. Environmental quality in the Chesapeake Bay
  • Early history of the peopling of the Virginia area
  1. Woodland Period and colonial history of the Rappahannock people
  2. Rappahannock persistence and resistance during the 19th and 20th century

We welcome the opportunity to discuss whether particular projects might be in the geographic area of interest for the tribe and invite federal agencies to review the materials provided in the background section above as additional context regarding Rappahannock interest in their project.

Development of Tribal Monitoring Plan

Because the Tribe has a clear interest in reviewing some types of environmental and cultural mitigation projects, the Rappahannock Tribe is in the process of developing a tribal monitoring program. Such cultural resource monitoring programs are at the discretion of federal agencies, and have commonly been embraced by infrastructure projects, private project proponents, and similar entities as a way of clarifying ongoing relationships and handling tribal engagement on substantial endeavors. The Rappahannock Tribe seeks federal or private partners in developing this type of program, which will provide more clarity within the review process, build corporate social responsibility, and increase project proponents and consultants’ understanding of Tribal priorities. Such a monitoring program would:

  1. Develop a monitoring program and provide training to tribal members and to federal agencies regarding tribal knowledge and monitoring techniques.
  2. Identify criteria for the necessity of tribal monitor work (i.e. expected recovery of human remains; excavation of sacred or village sites; identification of traditional cultural places; recording of tribal historic resources from the twentieth century; projects which require specialized ethnography or research)
  3. Create a non-profit or tribal-owned business that would provide sub-contracting tribal monitoring services to projects where monitoring is deemed necessary

Tribal monitors might assist cultural resources review for resources like traditional cultural landscapes, which are often challenging to identify and record without considerable experience with tribal oral history and spiritual practices. In addition, they are essential in some cases for developing a robust consultation practice on certain types of projects, particularly given the tribe’s finite capacity as it undergoes the federal recognition transition. Monitoring programs recognize that tribes and tribal members have unique expertise and perspectives which should be engaged within the project mitigation process in the way that other forms of environmental consultants are.

The Tribe asks federal and state agencies to consider the potential role of tribal monitors in facilitating consultation for their projects, especially for substantial projects with considerable impacts. Development and utilization of such a tribal monitoring program would be highly valued by tribes as an approach to mitigating impacts and demonstrating a commitment to government-to-government consultation.

Preferred Practices for Developing Memoranda of Agreement, Programmatic Agreements, and Treatment Plans

To a considerable degree, legal documents and guidance govern the experiences tribes have in the consultation and mitigation processes. The Rappahannock would like to see these documents developed along the following principles:

  1. It is of great concern to the Rappahannock Tribe that initial project planning and the development of Programmatic Agreements and Memoranda of Agreement prioritize:
    1. The maintenance and improvement of environmental conditions, particularly clean water, clean soil, and healthy floral and faunal species;
    2. The avoidance of cultural resources, particularly prehistoric and historic native American resources;
    3. The careful mitigation of cultural resources if impacts are unavoidable;
    4. Interpretation of any discovered resources to affected tribes, local communities, and regional leadership; and
    5. Inclusion of tribal governmental bodies, initiatives like Return to the River, tribal monitoring, and tribal representatives as appropriate to ensure meaningful tribal participation in the process.
  2. During development of Programmatic Agreements and Memoranda of Agreement, agencies should reach out to the Tribe at least twice by email to the Chief and the attorney and twice via hard copy before stating in these documents that no comments or consultation interest was received. Whenever possible, development of these documents without tribal participation should be concluded only after receiving a negative response from the Tribe as opposed to no response. We request that all communications inquiring about the Tribe’s desire to consult, or related to an ongoing consultation process, be provided in hard copy to Rappahannock Tribe, 5036 Indian Neck Road, Indian Neck, Va., 23148, AND via electronic mail to Rappahannock Chief Anne Richardson arichardson@rappahannocktribe.org AND the Tribe’s attorney, Marion Werkheiser of Cultural Heritage Partners  marion@culturalheritagepartners.com
  3. Adequate consultation is not merely providing informational meetings to the Tribe or providing cultural resources materials to tribal entities, it also involves listening to tribal concerns, answering questions, and conducting good-faith investigations regarding potential impacts – whether those are environmental, economic, cultural, or of some other nature. When the Tribe expresses a concern regarding a mitigation approach or potential environmental impact, it requests that the agency or project proponent provide a statement acknowledging the specifics of the Tribe’s concern within two (2) weeks, and that whenever possible they provide a substantive response regarding how this concern should be addressed within six (6) weeks. If a tribal concern cannot be alleviated, this concern should be mitigated through provisions in a Programmatic Agreement or Memorandum of Agreement. Too often, tribes provide concerns or questions and there is no corresponding effort on the project review side to engage with these concerns or conduct research into alternative approaches that might reduce these impacts. This is inappropriate and inadequate for government-to-government tribal consultation.
  4. Programmatic Agreements and Memoranda of Agreement should clearly state the conditions in which the Tribe will have the opportunity to visit data recovery projects, what the agency and project proponents’ responsibilities are in facilitating these visits, and how updates regarding archaeological fieldwork will be provided to the Tribe. The Tribe understands that land ownership and security concerns sometimes complicate this matter, but providing after-the-fact reports regarding work that was done does not allow the Tribe the opportunity to participate in the process and assess whether our interests are being adequately addressed.
  5. In cases where the SHPO is being contacted for assessment of an unanticipated discovery of a native cultural resource or human remains for a project on which the Rappahannock is a consulting party, the Rappahannock Tribe should also be contacted.
  6. These documents should address whether the anticipated finds and data recovery projects warrant ongoing review by a Rappahannock tribal member through the proposed Tribal Monitoring Program, whether mitigation through contributions to the tribal monitoring program would be appropriate, and whether consultation fees are envisioned for the project. If so, these documents should address the conditions under which a tribal monitor would need to be on site, details of the consultation purview, and a fee schedule.
  7. The Unanticipated Discovery of Human Remains and Unanticipated Discovery of Cultural Remains sections of these guidance documents should provide clear guidance regarding the following:
    1. If human remains are discovered, how the bone will be processed and where and how it will be curated after recovery;
    2. What the process would be for determining ancestry and cultural affiliation and resolving disputes that arise; and
    3. How tribes will be alerted to these finds and how our ability to access these sites and see the remains will be protected and addressed.

State and Local Government Engagements with Rappahannock

The Tribe welcomes engagement from the Commonwealth of Virginia and from local governments regarding projects that have the potential to affect the Tribe, particularly in Lancaster, Richmond, and King William, Essex, Caroline, and King and Queen Counties. The following types of initiatives are of particular focus for the Tribe as important for consultation, regardless of their federal involvement:

  • Development of initiatives to improve rural communications, cell service, and broadband;
  • Municipal review of projects with a high potential to introduce visual, aural, or quality-of-life impacts, including but not limited to: solar energy, landfills, quarrying, large agricultural or factory businesses; and
  • Local government projects with the potential to impact cultural or historic resources but which do not require federal review.

The Tribe is interested in working with State and local governments on partnerships that elevate capacity and services in core tribal areas.

[1] See Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. 515, 559 (1832).

[2] See Treaty of Middle Plantation (1677) listed in the Thomasina E. Jordan Act; Treaty with Lancaster County (1653); Treaty with [Old] Rappahannock County (1656).

[3] See, e.g., United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

[4] Seminole Nation v. United States, 316 U.S. 286, 297 (1942).

[5] See Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Indians v. Morton, 354 F. Supp. 252, 256 (D.D.C. 1972).

[6] Oglala Sioux Tribe of Indians v. Andrus, 603 F.2d 707, 721 (8th Cir. 1979).

[7] See Op. of the Va. Attorney Gen., No. 00-076 (Sept. 28, 2001).

[8] Strickland, Scott M., Julia A. King, G. Anne Richardson, Martha McCartney, and Virginia Busby. 2016. Defining the Rappahannock Indigenous Cultural Landscape. Report prepared for the National Park Service Chesapeake Bay, the Chesapeake Conservancy, and the Rappahannock Tribe of Virginia. St Mary’s College of Maryland.

[9] Thomasina E. Jordan Act of 2018, S 691 17-23.

[10] Strickland, Scott. 2019. Reconstructing the Neighborhood of Indian Neck, Virginia. Presentation at the Mid-Atlantic Archaeological Conference. Ocean City, MD. March 23, 2019.

[11] Speck, Frank, Royal B. Hassrick, and Edmund S. Carpenter. 1942 Rappahannock Herbals, Folk-Lore and Science of Cures. Proceedings of the Delaware County Institute of Science, Vol. X, No. 1.

Programs & Services
  • Consults with federal, state, and local agencies and non-profits on issues pertaining to cultural resource advocacy and protection.
  • Engages with research professionals regarding the historical homeland of the Rappahannock Tribe.
  • Partner with the National Park Service Chesapeake Bay, The Chesapeake Conservancy, and St. Mary’s College of Maryland in the Rappahannock Indigenous Cultural Landscape project.